"Current evidence indicates many chronic diseases can be largely prevented or treated by adhering to a plant-based diet, making health conscious lifestyle modifications and utilizing nutraceutical therapy as and when appropriate" – NutriSophic
A question has often been posed, would factory-farming be ethical if the animals were happy? I find this question interesting because I believe it challenges the utilitarian idea that an action that promotes the greatest happiness or pleasure is synonymous with an action that’s ethical. Although, it does so under very abstract circumstances.
The question is based on a hypothetical instance which begins with an assumption that an animal has the capacity to be happy, but then yet assumes confinement, mistreatment and de-animalisation, which is an inherent part of factory-farming, somehow fulfils this capacity for happiness.
Even if we entertained the idea that living in depraved and abhorrently sub-standard welfare conditions somehow would make an animal happy. We still have to consider objective standards for what we deem as humane living conditions that promote health and well-being before we can consider it ethical. Even then, slaughter would certainly be no more ethical, unless we now further abstractly hypothesise by proposing the animal wishes to die too.
The fact is, we know animals aren’t happy in confined animal feeding operations. So even if the answer was, hypothetically speaking, factory-farming is ethical if the animal is happy whilst captivated under such standards, the logic must also follow that factory-farming is therefore unethical if an animal is unhappy whilst captivated under such standards. If one can concede to the fact that factory farming, in the reality in which it currently exists, results in greater suffering and pain than it does promote happiness and well-being in animals. Then one can admit to factory-farming, as it currently stands, as being unethical.
Calorie control and awareness of your daily calorie consumption
Create a 300-500 calorie deficit with diet and exercise
Consume foods that are nutrient rich
Eat every 2 – 4 hours
Include high quality complete proteins in every meal
Eat only low glycemic high fibre wholesome carbohydrates or
keep carbohydrate intake low
Do not exclude essential fats they are vital to your health and for metabolism
Drink between 30-40ml/kg of water each day ie; 80kg x 30ml = at least 2400ml
Introduction Fat loss is the most sought after goal in the world of fitness and for a good reason too. Generally speaking, low body fat levels are a reflection of good health and this has also been the case historically too. This notion holds true today more than ever, especially when contrasted against an obesity epidemic.
Calorie control Fat loss is something that is dictated by energy input and energy output. You need to create a calorie deficit through diet and exercise to lose body fat. Once a calorie deficit has been established your body will be forced to use any unwanted fat to meet the metabolic demands of the body. If you consume more calories than you burn off through exercise, daily activities and your body’s natural metabolic and physiological processes on a daily basis, your body stores the unneeded calories as fat. Consume less calories than you burn off, however, and you lose fat.
Every one has a certain amount of calories they will need to eat to maintain their weight. For me (at time of writing) it’s around 2900 calories. Depending on whether you eat above or under what it takes to maintain your weight is what dictates whether you burn fat or store it.
You can use any online calculator to work out your maintenance caloric intake;
My fitness pal is also a very useful app which tracks your calorie intake and sets caloric targets based on your goals;
For most people 1-2lbs of fat loss per week is a realistic and ideal target. Although, you can expect to lose more weight than that each week the heavier you are, but it’s likely to be mainly water weight. Aiming for an initial daily calorie deficit of 500 calories is ideal since there are 3500 calories in a lb of fat. A daily deficit of 500 calories would therefore result in a loss of around a 1lb of fat per week.
A quality calorie Now we’ve determined how to lose body fat through calorie control we need to make sure the quality of calorie complements your goals. Just because you have a calorie allowance, it’s not wise to spend all day eating your favourite junk foods. Although it’s true, a calorie deficit is a calorie deficit, your satiety, energy and health won’t be favoured by a diet high in refined and processed foods and low in micronutrients and fibre, which can inadvertently affect your fat loss goals.
Meal frequency I personally am a firm believer and practitioner of frequent feeding. It does have small but positive effect on your metabolism, but the main reason for me is that by eating small meals every 3 hours it keeps my gut somewhat flatter than does eating 3 big meals a day, which seems to distend my stomach a bit more. Also whether you’re burning fat or building muscle, and particularly for performance and health, I think its very important to maintain a regular and steady intake of energy and micronutrients.
Here I will briefly outline the importance of the types of carbohydrates, fats and proteins;
Protein – The thermic effect of protein is particularly high with approximately 25% of the calories consumed from it being burned up in the digestion process. In other words if you eat 200 calories of protein around 50 calories is burned just while your body tries to break it down and digest it. That means you burn some calories eating protein. The effect is seen in some other hard to digest low calorie foods too. Whether you’re slimming down or bulking up you should aim to eat lean low saturated fat sources of protein with every meal. Being someone who follows an almost exclusively plant based diet, my top 3 favourites are:
Nato (fermented tofu)
Carbohydrates – Carbs are a double edged sword because they can be stored as fat much more readily depending on amount consumed, time of consumption and source. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity has skyrocketed over the last several decades. A paragraph from the national obesity statistics encapsulates an important point; ”Obesity statistics paint an alarming picture – and one that’s getting worse. In the UK around 43% of men and 33% of women are overweight, and a further 22% of men and 23% of women fall into the obese category.” A factor in this, which is supported by research, is the increased consumption of simple sugars and sugar rich snacks. Fast digesting, almost fibre-free carbs can increase hunger, decrease energy output and encourage weight gain. Carbs provide our body with energy as we all know but too much of the wrong types at the wrong times will do you no good. Most if not all of your carb sources should be high in fibre, slow digesting (low GI) and as unprocessed as possible. Eating carbs with them qualities will keep your energy, hunger and mood stable and will ensure your metabolic furnace remains ticking over. My top 3 favourites are:
Fats – I had a look at someone’s diet at my gym once and they pulled a very confused face when I told them to replace their reduced fat peanut butter with the natural full fat version. It’s absolutely essential you include a sensible amount of healthy fat in your diet for metabolic, hormonal and immune related reasons. Mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated fats (omega 3’s & 6’s and 9’s) and small amounts of saturated fat will help you stay in good health when restricting calories. Good fats will improve fat loss and muscle building via certain hormonal and metabolic pathways and particularly whilst dieting hard it will keep your immune system functioning well at a time when your body may not be at its fighting best. My top 3 favourites are:
Water – This is last but certainly not least. As I’m sure you should know by now water is absolutely essential for good health. It really does surprise me how little water most people drink. I have seen many people complain of headaches and only when asked how much water they average a day do they realise how little they consume. Water is the first thing we look for when searching planets for life because it is the foundation for it. The average person loses around 2 litres of water a day through sweat, urine and moisture lost through respiration. If you drink less than 2 litres a day you are likely not replacing what you’ve lost naturally, you will then lose more if you exercise. The amount you need really depends on your muscle mass and exercise regime. But aiming to drink any where between 2-3 litres a day is a good idea if you exercise moderately. Proper hydration will aid the digestion of food and will help transport nutrients a lot more effectively throughout the body. Hydration also aids fat loss and will allow you to work out harder in the gym. Besides the body is afterall around 70% water.