"Current evidence indicates many chronic diseases can be largely prevented or treated by adhering to a plant-based diet, making health conscious lifestyle modifications and utilizing nutraceutical therapy as and when appropriate" – NutriSophic
Our understanding of the human genome has improved exponentially over the past century. With the completion of the human genome project in 2003 humans have sequenced the entire molecule of life, deoxyribonucelic acid (DNA), estimating the presence of 20,500 genes and 1.42 million single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP’s) (Sachidanandam, Ravi et al 2001). This of course has led to a much clearer understanding of our genes and with it, a deeper cognizance for the information stored within them. Because of this, we are now able to much more thoroughly interpret our own genetic information which may hold the key to the future door of human health. Genetic analysis can be used to indicate an individuals susceptibility to specific diseases by identifying certain SNP’s that are associated with a persons risk of developing that particular disease. Similarly a person can even become familiar with their bodies own capacity to metabolise certain drugs and learn how well they respond to them. People are also able to build a social network with long distance relatives through the analysis of the ethnic composition of ones genome. However concerns have been raised regarding the interpretation and use of personal genetic information by the general public. This article will discuss both positive and negative implications of the use of a genetic analysis service 23andMe, as an accessible health screening device for the general public.
Genetic analysis from 23andMe can indicate an estimated risk of disease according to the identification of mutation SNP’s and could be used effectively to encourage healthier behaviour patterns in the right minded individuals. This could lead to an individual taking preventative measures to reduce their disease risk (Milne et al 2000) and thus resulting in positive health improvements. However, such information can also be misinterpreted and misleading for some, creating panic and anticipation about a disease that may never occur. This could create a rush for unnecessary screening and testing in healthy asymptomatic people that may never develop disease especially with regards to those who test positive for BRCA mutation genes associated with breast cancer. Conversely in the case of Rita Rubin, she found out through genetic analysis 23andMe that she had a smaller chance of developing Crohns disease than the average person but yet had lived with the condition all her life (Nextavenue.org). Genetic testing could also lead an individual into a false sense of security promoting an indulgence in unhealthy behaviours that may actually encourage disease, even though they are not genetically susceptible to it (Chapman and Bilton 2004) . Some of the disease susceptibility included in the service are diseases for which there is no cure or effective treatment. A concern remains in the question of whether psychologically and emotionally unstable individuals will respond well to finding out they are at a high risk for developing a disease they can not manage or treat. Conversely a strong minded and proactive individual being made aware they have a small chance of developing a disease will most likely take preventative actions to minimise their risk and make positive lifestyle changes.
Positive implications also exist for the testing of genetic variations that indicate drug metabolism. For example patients that use drugs to prevent heart attacks or blood clotting may benefit from knowing how well they respond to a certain drug and how sensitive they are to it. This information of course could potentially save lives, but may have to be used, in the context of public health, under the guidance of all relevant qualified health care professionals including emotional counsellors (Allyse and Michie 2013).
Data from genetic analysis can be both useful and detrimental to a persons physical and psychological welfare, depending on the individual and their interpretation of the data. Although data from such an analysis can not be currently used to determine exhaustive and definitive susceptibility to disease, it can nonetheless serve as a platform for the progression of this type of technology so more accurate interpretations can be made from this type of data in the future. Also until the reliability of the data from genetic analysis improves and its interpretation can be given more accurately, it should serve as ‘information of interest’ for the public, rather than a tool to discover the fate of one’s health. It should be made explicit to anyone using genetic analysis that genetics are only one factor in disease risk and not the only factor. Genetic analysis could ensue more concern and worry for some than the significance and reliability of the data deserves credit for. It does, however, have the ability to prosper as a device used for public health screening and for personalised health improvement at an individual level.
References Allyse, Megan, and Marsha Michie. (2013). ‘Not-So-Incidental Findings: The ACMG Recommendations On The Reporting Of Incidental Findings In Clinical Whole Genome And Whole Exome Sequencing’. Trends in Biotechnology 31.8 (2013): 439-441. Available from: http://www.nature.com/gim/journal/v15/n7/full/gim201373a.html [15 March 2015]
MILNE, S et al (2000) ‘Prediction And Intervention In Health-Related Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review Of Protection Motivation Theory’. J Appl Social Pyschol 30.1: 106-143. Available from: file:///C:/Users/User1/Downloads/JASP-PMTMeta.pdf[15 March 2015]
Nextavenue.org. (2013) ‘The Pros And Cons Of Genetic Testing’. N.p. Available from: http://www.nextavenue.org/article/2013-04/pros-and-cons-genetic-testing [15 March 2015]
At least 2 billion people worldwide are currently affected by micro-nutrient deficiencies and despite the UK being a developed country with high food availability, some British children still suffer deficiencies. During pregnancy and childhood where physiological growth occurs at a rapid rate, its well known an intake of Vitamin D is required in sufficient amounts during these crucial periods of growth. Mothers with low 25-OHD serum levels who fail to intake or supplement the recommended amounts of vitamin D during pregnancy and who breastfeed past 6 months without supplementation are the biggest causes of childhood vitamin D deficiency. Other factors that affect vitamin D status in children is inadequate UVB exposure and/or low intake of dietary sources include fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin D deficiencies seems to be a problem of our awareness about the importance of nutrition and of the availability of supplementation or food sources that could be improved with fortification rather than a problem of race and age.
Micro-nutrients are organic and inorganic substances composed of vitamins and minerals that we need from our diet which are necessary for cellular function, physical growth and tissue repair during all stages of life (Merson, Black and Mills, 2012). At least 2 billion people worldwide are currently affected by micro-nutrient deficiencies (Unitedcalltoaction.org, 2016) and despite the UK being a developed country with high food availability, some British children still suffer deficiencies. Currently many children and adolescents across the whole of Europe including Britain have all shown the same consistent deficiencies of at least six micro-nutrients (Kaganov et al., 2015).
Micro-nutrient deficiencies can affect all age groups but children are a particularly vulnerable group, especially those from low income families (Casey et al., 2001). The social and economic costs of micro nutrient deficiencies in women and children are also thought to be significant (Darnton-Hill et al., 2005). During pregnancy and childhood where physiological growth occurs at a rapid rate, it is well known an intake of micro-nutrients are required in sufficient amounts during these crucial periods of growth. Adverse effects from nutrient deficiencies are well documented (Viteri and Gonzalez, 2002) (SCN.,2004) and the effects of a prolonged deficiency is catastrophic.
One micro-nutrient deficiency that has made a come back since the industrial revolution is vitamin D. Deficiencies in vitamin D results in serious physical growth deformities (Abrams., 2002). Vitamin D deficiencies (VDD’s) are now being frequently observed children as a result of poor intake, inadequate sunlight exposure or because of a deficiency in the mother during pregnancy or breastfeeding. The long term outcomes from these deficiencies can lead to limitations in the quality of a childs future. So the importance of an adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and childhood cannot be overstated, although requirements are often not being met. Therefore the focus of this review will be based on the prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and among British children. This review will derive from recent research mainly within the last 15 years.
Vitamin D intake and recommendations
Two main forms of vitamin D exist as vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) which can be attained predominantly from animal foods and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) which is photochemically synthesised cutaneously in human and animal skin. Vitamin D converts into one of its active forms 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) of which serum levels can be measured and is the main clinical method used for assessing vitamin D status. Clinical deficiency is classed as a 25-OHD serum level of <25 nmol/L and a vitamin D insufficiency <50nmol/L, both inadequate levels for good health (Thurston et al., 2015). VDD (vitamin D deficiency) is now proving to be associated with many health problems (Macneil, 2008) (Gominak and Stumpf, 2012) (Zoler, 2012) (Reid, 2015) but is more widely known for effects on bone metabolism. This is important particularly for children and adolescents as 90% of bone density is laid during the first two decades of life (Eufic.org, 2014).
Vitamin D measurements and recommendations of intake can be confusing too as food labels and recommendations often use both µg and IU of units of measurements, which both have different equivalences. To avoid confusion it’s important to remember that every 1µg of vitamin D is equivalent to 40IU of vitamin D. Recommendations on vitamin D intake was set out by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA) in 1991. It was based on the assumption that the population would receive sufficient vitamin D intake in the summer resulting in sufficient stores for winter. Therefore, reference nutrient intakes (RNI’s) were only issued for vulnerable groups such as Infants and children aged under 4 years, who were advised an intake of 7-8.5µg/day (280-340IU/day), and pregnant women and breastfeeding women, advised an intake 10 μg/day (400 IU/day) via supplementation (Panel on Dietary Reference values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy., 1991). However, these dietary values are not being met by these groups today and may also not be in line with the lifestyle and cultures of today’s population who spend more time indoors or out of sunlight exposure and inactive than is recommended (Matsuoka et al., 1993) (Certain and Kahn, 2002).
Young women in the UK, from mixed ethnic backgrounds, also only average a daily intake of only 3μg of vitamin D and less than 1% of young women consume more than the RNI of 10μg/day (Marriott and Buttriss, 2003). This is worrying considering 10μg/day is the recommended intake advised during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent deficiency which can lead to growth impairments or osteoporotic bone injuries later on in life. Mothers with low 25-OHD serum levels who fail to intake or supplement the recommended amounts of vitamin D during pregnancy and who breastfeed past 6 months without supplementation are the biggest causes of childhood VDD (Thomas et al., 2011) (Aljebory, 2013). Nutritional rickets is regarded as a disease of VDD which results in serious bone deformity and the prevalence of rickets, is currently at its highest since 1963 (Goldacre, Hall and Yeates, 2014).
Vitamin D deficiency in cultural and ethnic groups
Culture and ethnicity are other factors that exacerbate childhood VDD prevalence in the UK, especially when dietary intake of vitamin D is already low and British weather is notoriously unreliable as a sustainable source of sunlight (UVB) exposure. Six Infants aged 10-28 months born in the UK of mothers that failed to supplement vitamin D during pregnancy and during breastfeeding were referred to a paediatric clinic. All infants presented with low serum 25-OHD levels and were subsequently diagnosed with florid rickets as a result of VDD. Some of the mothers were postgraduate students and some were immigrants but most of the mothers were traditional Muslims who concealed their skin in public for religious reasons (Mughal et al., 1999).
Since VDD is particularly prevalent among sunlight deprived individuals, such as women practising religions that require skin concealment, the current dietary recommendations may be inadequate for these individuals to attain sufficient 25-OHD levels who receive little to no UVB exposure (Glerup et al., 2000). Results from a UK study on 78 women aged 18-36 of South Asian origin showed 94% of these women to have VDD evident by low serum 25-OHD levels (Dobson, 2007). Further research supports the UK recommendations of UVB exposure in the summer to be inadequate for adults of South Asian ethnicity (Farrar et al., 2011) which means compensations must be made through dietary intake. Repeated research has also shown children of ethnic minority groups tend to be at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than caucasians (Shaw, 2002) (Brenner and Hearing., 2007) with high prevalence of VDD among Somali children (Modgil et al., 2010) and asian children (Zlotkin and Blumsohn, 1999). This obviously raises concerns for children born in the UK of mothers who are of a particular religion or ethnicity and of Mothers who are likely to have VDD before, during and after pregnancy while breastfeeding, unless of course specific dietary needs are met.
Vitamin D deficiency in Caucasians and general population
Many Caucasian women and children of the population however despite differing levels of ethnic susceptibility to VDD are still vitamin D deficient and studies have even shown even those in sunlight rich countries are susceptible to VDD (Bettica et al., 1999) (Gannagé-Yared et al., 2000) .
A study involving 1414 Caucasian women has shown females in the UK with fair skin have lower serum 25-OHD levels than Caucasian females with dark skin (Glass et al., 2009). This outlines variability in responsiveness to UVB exposure which ultimately affects vitamin D status and since the effects of VDD on bone health in Caucasian and non-Caucasian women are the same (SA, 2011) the prevalence of VDD in Caucasian women should not be overlooked either.
A longitudinal study involving 99 British Caucasian women who were pregnant showed 44% of the women were vitamin D deficient (25-OHD <25nmol/L) at 20 weeks gestation and 96% of women were vitamin D insufficient (25-OHD <50nmol/L) at 12 and 20 weeks . All women seemed to have improved vitamin D status by 35 weeks compared to 12 weeks gestation, but even then 16% were still vitamin D deficient and 75% still had insufficient levels. Some women also took vitamin D supplements which led to higher serum 25-OHD levels than those who didn’t, but vitamin D insufficiency was still present even with supplementation (Holmes et al., 2010).
A study conducted on children born of vitamin D deficient mothers showed all children were born deficient in vitamin D. However, vitamin D status in the infants quickly normalised after receiving an intake of 10μg/day (400 IU/day) at 2 weeks of age (Bergström, Blanck and Sävendahl, 2013) which intake is the RNI recommended for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Research shows that when baseline serum levels from groups were < 75 nmol/L, for every 1μg of vitamin D supplemented 25-OHD levels are raised by 2 nmol/L. However, when groups were clinically deficient (<25nnmol/l 25-OHD) or insufficient (<50nnmol/l 25-OHD) in vitamin D, there was significant value in providing an additional 10μg per day of vitamin D.
In a longitudinal UK study nearly a third of women studied had insufficient maternal 25-OHD levels (<50nmol/L) and 18% had maternal levels of 25-OHD levels indicative of deficiency (<25nnmol/L). These low 25-OHD levels during pregnancy resulted in reduced bone mass in their children at the age of 9 (Javaid et al., 2006). A cohort study showed the same results of reduced bone density observed in their offspring at 20 years of age born of mothers who were vitamin D deficient during pregnancy (Zhu et al., 2014). This highlights the need for national preventative and educational strategies aimed at the entire population with particular focus towards UK women of child bearing age.
Given the current rise in VDD It seems logical to make vitamin D supplements available to pregnant women through their GP in the same way folic acid is, although it was concluded by The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in 2003 that vitamin D should not be routinely administered to all pregnant women (NICE, 2003). Since then though clear relationships between maternal 25-OHD status and offspring health have been made apparent (Sabet, 2012) (Young et al., 2012) (Rebecca et al., 2013). Research has shown doses of 50μg/day of vitamin D supplementation taken by mothers during pregnancy and during breastfeeding has shown to protect infants from being born into deficiency and up until 8 weeks of age (March et al., 2015). Firm recommendations on vitamin D supplementation intakes as high as the maximum upper tolerable level (UL) to prevent deficiency has also been suggested (Holick et al., 2011). However others state the evidence is still insufficient to support definitive clinical recommendations of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy (Harvey et al., 2014) even though supplementation does raise serum 25-OHD levels to recommended amounts, larger randomised controlled trials have been prompted (Pérez-López et al., 2015).
Vitamin D status among children
Apart from mothers with low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and breastfeeding and ethnic susceptibility, other factors that affect vitamin D status in children are inadequate UVB exposure and/or low intake of dietary sources including fortified foods or supplements (Hartman, 2000). Excessive sunscreen use has been recognised as a factor in causing VDD in Caucasian children (Galibois, Rhainds and Gagné, 2001) which unfortunately mimics the same problem ethnic groups face who have low UVB absorption rates due to dark skin pigmentation and its use on children has been put into question (Norval and Wulf, 2009). This makes dietary intake or supplementation of vitamin D seem like the only plausible option for achieving ample vitamin D status. Although intakes of dietary sources among children are poor especially in countries where optional or no mandatory fortification policy is in place (Prentice, 2008). The diets of 755 children aged 18 months-3.5 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPC) in the UK were analysed. It was found that all of the childrens diets were low in dietary sources of vitamin D and were all below the recommended intake for vitamin D. It also found that milk was the main source of what little vitamin D they did consume and it was suggested that an increase in fortification levels of vitamin D would most likely help children receive adequate intakes (Cribb et al., 2014). In a study involving 252 Irish children and adolescents, more than half had 25-OHD serum levels at <50nmol/L which is considered insufficient (Carroll et al., 2014). Educational methods and health promotion have proven effective at increasing intakes of dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D among children (Spence et al., 2013) (Pampaloni et al., 2015) and may work in concert with a similar educational programme aimed at parents that could reinforce what’s being taught in children.
Children pay the price because of their Mothers inadequate nutritional intakes during pregnancy and breastfeeding and largely because of their Mother’s lack of awareness about the importance of vitamin D. Awareness and education early on in pregnancy may lay the foundations for a vitamin D sufficient future for future generations in the hope that the message of vitamin D importance is passed on to prevent an issue of the past and present becoming an issue of the future. An improved national fortification policy aimed at frequently consumed foods may help resolve vitamin D deficiency, as will national supplementation recommendations on vitamin D during pregnancy and breastfeeding which has shown to improve vitamin D status. Research is showing vitamin D deficiencies and rickets to be on the rise and vitamin D deficiency is clearly being observed in pregnant and breastfeeding women and in children of all ages and ethnicities. Vitamin D deficiencies seems to be a problem of our awareness about the importance of nutrition and of the availability of supplementation or food sources that may be improved with fortification rather than a problem of race and age.
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Nutrition consists of the functional components in food that an organism must obtain in order for it to grow and flourish. Nutrition simply put is a collective term for all of the nutrients required by an organism to sustain life and promote health.
“Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition – an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity – is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity.” – (World Health Organisation)
Nutrients are the organic and inorganic substances found in plant and animals material deemed biologically functional to an organism’s physiological demands. Simply put, nutrients support the functioning of an organism on a cellular level. There are two types of nutrients; Essential nutrients, of which the body cannot biosynthesize (or can but in inadequate amounts) which must be obtained from diet and non-essential nutrients, of which the body can biosynthesize in sufficient quantity.
“Food provides a range of different nutrients. Some nutrients provide energy, while others are essential for growth and maintenance of the body. Carbohydrate, protein and fat are macronutrients that we need to eat in relatively large amounts in the diet as they provide our bodies with energy and also the building blocks for growth and maintenance of a healthy body. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients which are only needed in small amounts, but are essential to keep us healthy. There are also some food components that are not strictly ‘nutrients’ but are important for health, such as water and fibre.” – (British Nutrition Foundation)
There are six main essential nutrients carbohydrates, fats, protein (the macronutrients), vitamins, minerals (the micronutrients) and water which is also considered an essential nutrient.
Macro-nutrients are generally obtained from the diet in amounts ranging anything from tens of grams to hundreds of grams. For example the protein requirements are based on the “RNI” (Reference Nutrient Intake) and for an average UK adult is 0.75g per kg of body weight, which is 53g for a 70kg adult. Compare this to carbohydrate requirements, based on “DRV’s” (Dietary Reference Values), which are 50% of total energy intake which would be 313g on a 2500 kcal diet.
Micronutrients however, are required in far smaller amounts and are measured in milligrams and micrograms. Intakes are based on the RNI’s and are based. The dietary recommendations for intakes of B12 for example are so small the amount needed would fit on the tip of a pin since only 1.5 micrograms is required.
Non-essential nutrients are nutrients which do not need to be directly obtained via the diet since they are indirectly obtained via substrates and can be synthesised endogenously (within the body). Non-essential nutrients mainly consist of the non-essential amino acids, but also nutrients such as inositol (vitamin B8) and certain minerals are also considered non-essential, although this does not undermine the importance of these nutrients for our health.
Phytochemicals There are of course very important components of foods that do not get official recognition as “essential nutrients” although their exclusion from this category might mislead one to think they’re not as important. They are, and arguably more so when the aim is to optimise health. Phytochemicals are beneficial non-nutritive components of foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds. These plant chemicals include phenols, terpenoids, sulfurs compound, pigments and other antioxidants, all of which have shown to promote significant health benefits and may have specific preventative implications for certain disease including cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Is diet enough to obtain all the nutrition we need?
Absolutely. Most people should be able to get all the nutrients they need by eating a healthy, varied diet, including multiple colours and fruit and vegetables. However, there are a few exceptions where supplementation may be wise or even necessary. For example, if a woman is planning to conceive a child it is recommended they take a folic acid (vitamin B9) supplement to prevent congenital birth defects. Unless of course you can consistently consume at least 300 mcg of dietary folate, supplementation is a sensible option. Spina-bifida can occur in Mothers whose B9 intake is insufficient before conception and particularly during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Vitamin D is another vitamin in which it is difficult to obtain in sufficient amounts all year round from food and sunlight alone. This is even more the case for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women, the elderly, Muslims who veil the skin, those with dark pigmented skin such as Asians and Africans, children and also Caucasians with fair skin. Current research now supports the idea that most people would benefit from vitamin D supplementation as current intakes and levels of UVB exposure are inadequate, especially for building reserves for winter. Moderate to high dose supplementation may also be a necessary requirement for those or are clinically deficient as to consistently raise serum levels from deficiency status into adequate ranges, which even then could take months.
Barros, L. and Ferreira, I. (2017). Editorial: Phytochemicals and their Effects on Human Health. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(19).
Holick, M., Binkley, N., Bischoff-Ferrari, H., Gordon, C., Hanley, D., Heaney, R., Murad, M. and Weaver, C. (2011). Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(7), pp.1911-1930.
Nutrition.org.uk. (n.d.).What are nutrients? – British Nutrition Foundation. [online] Available at: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/healthyliving/basics/what-are-nutrients.html [Accessed 20 May 2016].
Nutrition is vital to us, plain and simple, we need it, we enjoy it and we can’t live without it, but nutrition is a word that’s been ignored. Nutrition is something that’s so overlooked and so disregarded by too many people with the same goals. It still surprises me to see so many people are so unaware of just how important nutrition is to many things including their mood, their performance, their results in the gym and most importantly their vitality and health.
It may surprise you to know many physical and mental health conditions today can be attributed to a poor diet. Nutrition during pregnancy is a crucial period as even mild deficiencies can have profound long term implications or worse cause permanent birth defects. Child and adolescent nutrition is also of the up-most importance for the healthy development of a brain and body. Good nutrition at these stages can be pivotal. The correct nutrients and minerals boost the brains cognitive abilities helping with memory retention, concentration and learning ability. These nutrients also play key roles as structural components of all growing tissues all throughout the body. Nutrition is vital not just for aesthetic purposes but for the very foundations of our growing bodies since before we are even born.
Diet is the key to long term results
Most people however are fairly familiar with nutrition in terms of body composition and are aware of the ups and downs of dieting and trying to lose weight. So many times I have had people ask me the same questions over and over, they ask why they’re not losing weight or tell me how they cant seem to put muscle weight on and ask why that is. I usually respond with the same question first… well, tell me what you eat?
Nutrition provides our body with sustenance, it provides us with the vital vitamins, minerals and nutrients our body thrives off to make almost every physiological process possible and if your exercising this demand for sustenance is increased. Third to oxygen and water its an important life source we can’t live without. The body needs food and if it has no source of energy it will catabolise it’s own energy rich tissues in order to get what it needs. The body seeks these nutrients for it’s immediate needs at any cost.
This one reason many people fail on their fitness goals. They use fad diets that are far too restrictive which deprive the body of many essential nutrients or eat too much of certain nutrients altogether. Without some basic understanding of these processes, the long term result can be one step forward one back at best and at worst unhealthy. Of course this all leads to a very dismayed and disheartened individual that thinks they are “just one those people that cant lose/gain weight” despite trying every so-called diet when in fact the reasons why they’re not losing weight are very simple. They just don’t know it yet.
Today’s nutrition tradition
Unfortunately in today’s society nutrition has become more then just a means to survive, gone are the days where food was purely a source of fuel and a way to survive. We now live in an age where food is used traditionally as a way of socializing and a way of having fun. It’s also used as an emotional tool to make us “feel better” when were down and for a large majority its even used purely just to pass time. Due to the fact we no longer have to hunt for our food (and its available in abundance in mostly unnatural and processed forms all within a stone throw away), we now suffer with more medical issues associated with food alone more than ever. Diabetes, obesity, fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyper-lipidemia to name a few. Cancer, cardio-vascular disease, stroke, lung and liver disease are Britain’s biggest killers, most of which are preventable or attributed to poor diet and/or lifestyle. We also now live in an age where obesity has more then doubled since 1980, its dominating people of all ages and is also growing concern among children. Nutrition is an absolutely crucial element in improving longevity and good health. This is why it is in my view that food should be eaten mostly to provide the body with a benefit first and pleasure or convenience secondary where possible. We are after all what we eat what we eat.
Good nutrition alongside a healthy lifestyle
Good nutrition also should not excuse hard work in the gym. Research has consistently shown diet alone is less effective than diet and exercise combined. Training and nutrition go hand in hand, there’s no doubt about that and one will only take you so far. Once you have a healthy structured eating habit which reflects your goals, a good training regime will then be like the icing on the cake, that last piece to the puzzle…And remember, power is knowledge but knowledge is nothing without application.
Parents, kids and food education
This article was inspired by an unfortunate disagreement that had arisen between me and someone I know. This disagreement was sadly over my efforts to encourage healthy eating in my Daughter (who was a very aware and conscious 5 year old at the time) and from the education I had provided her regarding the benefits and the potential dangers of unhealthy food. My efforts with my daughter and with many other people whose lives and healths I have helped improve over the years, have never been based on exaggerations, or scare tactics. My efforts, identical to my articles, views, values and philosophies in nutrition, have always been influenced and supported by scientifically validated facts and evidence as well as logical rationale.
This is an important point to note. I don’t believe in lying to my child in the same way I don’t expect my child to lie to me. In fact I have a real hard time with the whole Santa thing and just avoid the question when she asks me. I don’t believe in discouraging them from eating crisps by telling them, “if you eat crisps you’ll get cancer”. I don’t agree with scaring them into eating healthy food. In contrast I disagree with saying things like “if you eat your vegetables you can have dessert” as I also don’t agree with bribing them to eat healthy food with the reward of eating unhealthy food afterwards either. In fact it completely contradicts my point of promoting healthy food over unhealthy food. I don’t agree with distorting the truth in any way or promoting unhealthy eating habits to promote healthy eating to kids, at all.
Sometimes the best way to teach a child, is to teach a child. Sometimes a child needs to learn and know instead of being told what to do or what not to do. If you can educate a child on why they should be eating healthy food, why they should only eat chocolate sparingly, then that’s half the battle. Once a child is aware of the effect on health food can have, based solely on facts, it’s human nature and instinct to avoid or at least reduce contact with things that we know could be harmful to us through behavioural change. This works particularly well in children, more so than in adults because children function through more primal instincts and emotions. Where as with maturity, comes the complex advancement in attitudes, willful ignorance, pride and stubborn behaviours which can of course have a negative effect on one’s on health.
Ignorance is far more common in adults especially with regards to health. Ignorant not just about nutrition, but willfully ignorant to acknowledge anything that may challenge their current paradigm, regardless of logic or fact. But that’s a discussion for another article. Children’s instincts and emotions are far simpler. They are more instinctive in nature in the respect that they show less ignorance to dangers in general. This instinctive nature can guide children in making healthier food choices. Based on this they can potentially show much more enthusiasm in being healthy, particularly when they understand and are aware of the negative effects such things can have on their health. In the same way a child can learn to associate strangers or say a wasp with negative connotations you can also create a negative association with unhealthy food.
This brings me swiftly to my point. This is how I have educated my daughter. I’ve made her aware of facts and educated her on how to be healthy. She can tell the difference between refined and wholegrain carbohydrates, with a fairly good understanding of which ones can lead to sharp rise and falls in blood sugar and which ones don’t. Some kids her age are still learning the alphabet or their months, but my Daughter has been able to distinguish all the major muscles on the body from gastronemus to trapezius with near perfect pronunciation from the age of 4. What’s great is that she generally enjoys learning about food and is always quizzing me for information and then randomly recites information back to me two weeks later, much to my surprise and satisfaction. I would say she is the epitome and vision of what many public health professionals including myself want for the future of children in this country.
It’s now becoming more common for children to get diagnosed with adult onset type II diabetes despite the fact its usually diagnosed in adults over the age of 40, children that are now on medication because of an adopted, family drawn perception that has been perpetuated by clever food marketing in the media, that certain refined and processed foods are normal foods to eat and are part of our staple diet. But yet my daughter knows what diabetes is. Not only does she know what it is she’s aware of what foods are potential promoters of it and she limits her intake of them foods. Given that there are more children now obese and overweight with diet related diseases than ever before, the importance of this can’t be down-played or shrugged off.
Chocolate is NOT food. Crisps are NOT food. Refined, processed, chemically altered, artificially made, aggressively manufactured, contaminated man made junk is NOT food. If it does not grow from natural vegetation teach your child to limit their intake of it and educate them about why.
So what age is the right age to tell a child fruit offers many nutrients that help you learn better at school? when is the right time to tell a child a diet high in sugar will decay their teeth and can lead to health problems? when is the right time to tell them that having crisps for lunch will only provide empty calories that will not give them lots of long lasting energy to play with their friends at break? when is the right time to tell a child the saturated fat in McDonald’s burgers is not good for their heart and to be weary of marketing ploys designed to appeal to a child’s immediate desires? The main point of being a parent is to look after and protect your child. It’s to provide them with the best quality of life possible. Then surely wouldn’t the right answer to the question; when is the right time to teach kids about health? be at the very least, sooner, rather than later?
I may be criticised for teaching my daughter things she “doesn’t need to know about at her age” but at least I know with confidence my Daughter is not part of the huge public health crisis where many of today’s kids will grow up unhealthy, over weight, nutrient deficient and lacking fundamental food education to protect them from diet related diseases in the future. Now that for me, is a comforting thought and well worth the criticism.